Clove Market in Japan
The revenue of the clove market in Japan rose sharply to $ in , picking up by % against the previous year. This figure reflects the total revenues of producers and importers (excluding logistics costs, retail marketing costs, and retailers' margins, which will be included in the final consumer price). Over the period under review, the total consumption indicated a modest increase from 2007 to : its value increased at an average annual rate of +% over the last fourteen years. The trend pattern, however, indicated some noticeable fluctuations being recorded throughout the analyzed period. Based on figures, consumption increased by +% against 2016 indices. As a result, consumption attained the peak level of $. From 2012 to , the growth of the market remained at a lower figure.